The history of the Tamil civilization can be traced to Kumari Continent (now submerged in the vast Indian Ocean or that had gradually moved up to the present location due to geographical changes. Archeologist had proved that this civilization is one of the oldest one in the world since the Rock system of South India – Archaean Rock is the oldest rock system in the world. This rock system, which is pre Cambrian, is estimated about 2.5 to 4 billion years old.
Tamil speaking Peninsular in India thus migrated from the above said location is of rich tradition and culture. Peace, Bliss, Wisdom and Healthy life were the primary objectives for this society even during those early periods. This in turn paved way for the evolution of Siddha system of medicine.
More than a medical system, it describes a way of healthy life. It deals with whole subject of life in its various branches.
It speaks about every elements and facet of human life offering guidance that has been tested and refined over many centuries, to all those who seek greater harmony peace and longevity.
The ancient Tamils have described the five Boothams (primordial elements) of Earth, Water, Fire, Wind and Space as the components of the Universe as well as the human body – the microcosm.
Siddha system is a concept of virtuous ascendance aiming the union of microcosm with macrocosm
Exclusivities of Siddha system when compared to alternative systems of medicine are:
- Kayakarpam – Procedures of rejuvenating the entire human system
- Attanga Yogam – Eight divisions of YOGA
- Muppu – Superior form of Elixir used to enhance the effectiveness of medicines
- Varmam – Life centers in the human body
- Rasavatham – Alchemy -Study of transmutation of elements, forerunner of modern chemistry and pharmacology
- Envagai Thervu – Eight unique type of diagnostic parameters
- Manikkadai Nool – The wrist portion just proximal to the hand is measured with a rope and health condition of a patient is ascertained based on the actual measurement by the patient’s finger
- Mooligai Prayogam, Marana Prayogam, Thiravaga Prayogam, Seyaneer Prayogam and Muppu Prayogam – Unique internal medicine administration procedures
- Sarakkuvaippu – Art of preparing naturally available salts, minerals and other materials artificially
- 32 types of Internal Medicines
- 32 types of External Medicines
Siddha system’s Classification of treatment
- Makkalurai (Human Type) – The treatment is rendered with medicines prepared from herbs
- Devarurai (Divine Type) – It comprises of medicines prepared from Mineral preparations like Parpam, Chendooram, Gurukuligai and Muppu
- Asurarurai (Surgical Type) – Heat application, performance of surgical techniques, bloodletting methods and leech application are employed in this division.
Three types of medicinal preparation
- Oppurai: A cure employed by the drugs, which stimulate the symptoms similar to those of the disease.
- Etherurai: A cure by those drugs, which acts against and suppress the symptoms of the disease.
- Kalappurai: A cure by adopting the combination of the above two methods with care and strengthening the action of the drug or drugs of similar actions whenever required.
Envagai Thervukal :
Eight ways of examination as per Siddha literature:
- Naadi (Unique Siddha pulse reading method),
- Naa (Tongue),
- Niram (Colour),
- Mozhi (Voice),
- Vizhi (Eye),
- Malam (Feces),
- Parisam (Touch / palpation) and
- Neerkuri (specific Urine examination)